Meningitis is a serious disease in which there is inflammation of the membranes (meninges) surrounding your brain and spinal cord, caused by viral or bacterial infection, and marked by intense headache and fever, sensitivity to light, and muscular rigidity.
Many people unfortunately still believe that meningitis only affects babies and young children. This is not the case. Meningitis can affect anyone, of any age, at any time; it can strike quickly and kill within hours.
Students are considered to be a higher risk group for meningitis, and you should familiarise yourself with the signs and symptoms, so you can watch out for them in yourself and your friends. (It is sadly not uncommon for there to be deaths of students from meningitis each year in Liverpool.)
A new vaccination programme has been launched (September 2015) for all 17 and 18 year olds to be vaccinated against the A,C,W and Y strains of meningococcus. This doesn’t cover all causes of meningitis, but is an important step in reducing incidences of this deadly disease among students.
New university and college entrants (freshers) up to the age of 25 are also eligible for vaccination. Ideally you should have this from your GP before starting University, but there will also be catch up sessions for those who have missed it, or you can simply book with the nurse to request this in a regular appointment.
What is Mumps?
Mumps is an infection caused by a type of virus called a paramyxovirus. It is very contagious and spread in saliva, the same way as a cold or flu. This means it can be caught from an infected person coughing, sneezing, etc. Or, from touching infected objects, for example, door handles. Mumps infection is less common since the introduction of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine in the UK. (See separate leaflet called ‘MMR Immunisation’ for more information.) Mumps infection is now most common in children who have not received the vaccine.
What are the usual symptoms of mumps?
- Swelling and pain of one or both parotid glands are the usual main symptoms. The parotid glands are the main salivary glands. They are just below the ears and you cannot normally see or feel them. The salivary glands make saliva which drains into the mouth.
- The mouth may feel dry.
- Chewing or swallowing may feel sore.
- Fever (high temperature), headache, feeling tired and being off food may develop for a few days.
- Mild abdominal (tummy) pain may occur.
The swelling of the parotid glands usually lasts 4-8 days. Mumps is normally a mild illness, but complications sometimes occur. This is why immunisation is important.
There may be no symptoms, or only very minor ones. It is thought that about 3 in 10 people who contract the mumps virus have no symptoms. Rarely, complications alone occur without the usual symptoms occurring first. The immune system makes antibodies during the infection. These clear the virus and then provide lifelong immunity. It is therefore very rare to have more than one episode of mumps.
What are the possible complications of mumps?
The outlook for young children with mumps is very good. Teenagers and adults with mumps are more likely to develop complications, which may include one (or more) of the following:
- The testes (testicles) are sometimes affected. One testis may become inflamed, swollen, and painful for about a week. This is uncommon in young children. However, about 1 in 4 males who get mumps over the age of 12 develops a painful swollen testis. Occasionally, both testes are affected. In very rare cases this may cause infertility.
- Brain inflammation (encephalitis or meningitis) is an uncommon complication. It typically causes drowsiness, headache, stiff neck, wanting to keep out of the light, and vomiting. Although alarming, meningitis caused by the mumps virus usually clears after a few days without any long-term problems.
- Hearing loss can occur in around one in twenty people with mumps. This is usually only transient and usually improves with time. Very rarely, mumps can cause permanent deafness.
- Inflammation of the pancreas, heart, and other organs are rare complications.
- If you develop mumps in the first 12-16 weeks of a pregnancy, it may increase the risk of miscarriage. (However, the mumps virus is not thought to cause malformations or defects in an unborn baby.)
How is mumps diagnosed?
Mumps is most commonly diagnosed by your symptoms and the type of glands that are enlarged in your body. However, some people have a swab taken from their mouth to obtain some saliva. This is sent to the laboratory to confirm the diagnosis.
What is the treatment for mumps?
There is no drug that kills the mumps virus. TFor most people, mumps improves over a week with no long-term problems.
Treatment aims to ease symptoms until the body’s immune system clears the virus.
- You do not need any treatment if symptoms are mild
- Paracetamol or ibuprofen can be beneficial to ease fever and pain.
- Give children lots to drink, particularly if they have a fever. Fruit juice may stimulate the parotid gland to make more saliva, and cause more pain. Water is best if this occurs.
- A warm flannel held against a painful parotid gland is soothing.
When to seek medical help?
Most people are back to normal within 7-10 days. Seek medical help if you suspect that a complication is developing (described above).
Should people with mumps keep away from others?
Yes. Mumps is very infectious. It takes 14-21 days to develop symptoms after being infected. Affected people are infectious from about six days before, until about five days after, a parotid gland begins to swell. People with mumps should therefore stay off school, nursery, college or work and avoid other people as much as possible. This is as soon as mumps is suspected and for five days from the onset of parotid gland swelling.
An effective vaccine to prevent mumps is available. It is part of the MMR vaccine. This is routinely offered to all children aged 12-15 months in the UK. A second dose is offered as part of the routine pre-school booster programme at four years of age. The routine MMR vaccinations were only introduced in 1988, so some students may have missed this, and others may not have been immunised for other reasons. If you are not sure, you should see the nurse. If in dout, you will be given a booster. Having an extra dose causes no harm. Also, it does not do any harm if you have had mumps in the past and then have the MMR vaccine.
Immunisation gives very good protection, and so mumps is now rare in the UK. However, in recent years there has been an increase in the number of cases of mumps, usually seen in people who have not been immunised with MMR.
For further information visit: NHS Choices website
Also known as the ‘kissing disease’ glandular fever is caused by an infectious virus which is passed on by saliva and from coughs and sneezes. Glandular fever causes a flu like illness with temperature, headache, sore throat and swollen glands and can cause a tiredness lasting for some time after first onset.
Glands may swell in the armpits and groin, and diagnosis is confirmed by a blood test. There is no treatment for glandular fever but it can be helped by drinking plenty of water, eating healthily and keeping a good sleep pattern with plenty of rest.
More information here, from NHS Choices.